Brain in a Vat: On Missing Pieces Towards Artificial General Intelligence in Large Language Models


In this perspective paper, we first comprehensively review existing evaluations of Large Language Models (LLMs) using both standardized tests and ability-oriented benchmarks. We pinpoint several problems with current evaluation methods that tend to overstate the capabilities of LLMs. We then articulate what artificial general intelligence should encompass beyond the capabilities of LLMs. We propose four characteristics of generally intelligent agents: 1) they can perform unlimited tasks; 2) they can generate new tasks within a context; 3) they operate based on a value system that underpins task generation; and 4) they have a world model reflecting reality, which shapes their interaction with the world. Building on this viewpoint, we highlight the missing pieces in artificial general intelligence, that is, the unity of knowing and acting. We argue that active engagement with objects in the real world delivers more robust signals for forming conceptual representations. Additionally, knowledge acquisition isn’t solely reliant on passive input but requires repeated trials and errors. We conclude by outlining promising future research directions in the field of artificial general intelligence.


Artificial intelligence, LLMs, Brain in a vat, Benchmark


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